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1206 Einträge
Soja-Bohne
Soja-Bohne

Soja-Bohne

Synonyme und volkstümliche Namen

G.hispida,Dolichos soja,Phaseolus max,Soja hispida

Soja-Bohne
Latein: Glycine max
Familie: Schmetterlingsblütler (Fabaceae) Details ]
Vegetationszeit: Einjährige Pflanze
Jahreszeit: FRÜHSOMMER

Beschreibung

THERE IS NO JOY IN SOY - IT'S A PLOY

DER UMSTRITTENE NUTZEN VON SOJA - "The ploy of soy" von Sally Fallon
und Mary G. Enig 1999
unter www.westonaprice.org/soy/ploy.html, incl. Literatur

Die Sojabohne stammt ursprünglich aus China, unter der Chou-Dynastie
(1134-246 v. Chr.) galt sie als eines der 5 heiligen Getreide mit Gerste, Weizen,
Hirse und Reis. Das Piktogramm für Soja zeigt jedoch, dass es nicht primär zur
Ernährung diente, sondern zur Stickstoffversorgung des Bodens beim
Fruchtwechsel. Erst mit der Entdeckung der Fermentierungsmethoden galt Soja
als essbar (tempeh, natto, miso, shoyu - Sojasauce). Mit Hilfe von Calciumsulfat
oder Magnesiumsulfat wurde im 2. Jh. v. Chr. Tofu hergestellt, Indonesien und
Japan übernahmen diese Methoden, sie machen heute 90 % des verwendeten
Soja in Asien aus.

Die Sojabohne enthält eine große Anzahl schädlicher Substanzen, darunter
Enzymhemmstoffe, welche Trypsin und andere Enzyme für die Eiweißverdauung
und Aminosäurenaufnahme blockieren und durch gewöhnliches Kochen nicht
zerstört werden. Im Tierversuch führten diese Stoffe zu krankhaften
Veränderungen der Bauchspeicheldrüse und sogar Krebs. Weiters enthält Soja
Hemaglutinin, welches eine Verklumpung von roten Blutkörperchen bewirkt,
gemeinsam mit dem Trypsinhemmstoff gilt es als Wachstumshemmer, beide
werden nur durch Fermentierung deaktiviert.
Sojabohnen enthalten weiter Phytate, pflanzliche Säuren, die in allen Samen
vorkommen und die Aufnahme von Mineralstoffen wie Calcium, Magnesium,
Eisen und besonders Zink blockieren. Diese Stoffe sind genau erforscht und es
ist erwiesen, dass sie für den Mineralstoffmangel in der 3. Welt verantwortlich
sind. Der Phytatgehalt von Sojabohnen ist höher als bei anderem Getreide oder
Hülsenfrüchten. Nur die Fermentierung schützt davor und die gleichzeitige
Aufnahme von Fleisch. Vegetarier, die Tofu und andere Sojaprodukte als Ersatz
für Fleisch, Eier und Milchprodukte essen, riskieren schweren Mineralstoffmangel!

Da in Amerika nur die Sojasoße wirklich angenommen wird, sucht die Industrie
andere Wege der Vermarktung von Soja. Erst nach dem 2. Weltkrieg hat dort die
Anpflanzung von Soja begonnen, die bis heute rasant ansteigt. Der Großteil der
Ernte wird zu Viehfutter und Sojaöl für Margarine verarbeitet. In den letzten
25 Jahren wurde ein Markt gesucht für die Nebenprodukte wie Sojalecithin und
Sojaprotein: Sojamilch, -joghurt, -eis, -käse und -mehl und Fleischersatz,
eiweißreich, ohne Fett und Cholesterin, werden als Gesundheitsnahrungsmittel
angepriesen, bergen allerdings zahlreiche Gefahren.

Die Herstellung von Sojamilch ist relativ einfach: Um die Trypsinhemmer zu
reduzieren werden die Bohnen in eine alkalische Lösung gegeben. Das Pürree
wird dann bei 115 Grad druckerhitzt. Dadurch wird ein Teil der Anti-Nährstoffe
zerstört, das Eiweiß so verändert, dass es schwerer verdaulich ist, der
Phytatgehalt ändert sich nicht. Weiters wird es durch die Alkalilösung
krebserregend und der Cystingehalt wird reduziert. Ohne Cystin ist der
Eiweißkomplex der Sojabohne nutzlos und muß durch cystinreiche Lebensmittel,
wie Fleisch, Eier oder Milchprodukte ausgeglichen werden.
Viele Nahrungsmittel-Ersatzstoffe auf Sojabasis werden aus isoliertem
Sojaeiweiß hergestellt, wobei die Bohnen gemahlen und durch hohe Temperatur
von den Ölen befreit und mit einer Alkalilösung und Zucker vermischt werden.
Dann wird das Protein durch eine Säurewaschung isoliert. Anschließend wird es
neutralisiert und bei hoher Temperatur sprühgetrocknet. Durch diesen Vorgang ist
der Vitamin- und Eiweißgehalt fraglich, doch die Enzymblocker bleiben aktiv und
müssen nicht angegeben werden, weiters bleibt der Phytatgehalt groß.
In Sojakindernahrung ist der Aluminiumgehalt 10 x größer als in behandelter Milch
und 100 x größer als in unbehandelter. Aluminium wird verantwortlich gemacht für
Lebervergiftungen bei Kindern und Alzheimer-Krankheit bei Erwachsenen.
Zugefügt werden unnötige Stoffe, wie z. B. Phosphate, Ätznatron, Kalium, Zitrate.
Krebserregende Nitrosamine werden in Sojaprodukten gefunden und durch den
Trocknungsprozeß bei hohen Temperaturen erhöht. Etliche künstliche
Geschmackstoffe wie MSG werden Sojaprodukten beigefügt, um den
Bohnengeschmack zu überdecken, z. B. in Industriebackwaren, Diätgetränken
und Fertiggerichten, welche vielfach in der 3. Welt Verwendung finden. Diese
Sojaprodukte verhindern die Zink- und Eisenaufnahme. Auch wird vermutet, dass
die deutliche Zunahme von Leber- und Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs in Afrika auf
die Einführung der Sojaprodukte zurückzuführen ist. Entfettete Trockenmilch mit
hohem Nitrathehalt und gesüßte Condensmilch sind die hauptsächlichen
Milchprodukte in Entwicklungländern.

Auch eine Ernährung mit den deutlich wertvolleren fermentierten
Sojanahrungsmitteln ist nicht komplett, ihre Verwendung erfordert eine höhere
Zufuhr an Vitamin B 12 + D und sollte wegen der fettlöslichen Vitamine D + A
unbedingt durch Fleisch, Eier und Fisch ergänzt werden.

Interessant, aber für uns unwesentlich, ist auch der Nachweis, dass die
modernen Fütterungsmethoden, welche hochwertiges Eiweiß durch Soja
ersetzten, Sojadünger und Zuchtmethoden zu vermehrter Milchallergie geführt
haben (als Beispiel gelte Japan, das traditionell wenig Milchprodukte
verwendete, und wo heute fast jeder 2. an Lactoseintoleranz leidet).

The Ploy of Soy

Commercial milk products have been linked to a number of disease conditions
including allergies, asthma, arthritis, diabetes, auto immune diseases, childhood
anemia, heart disease and cancer. Many have turned to soy products as
substitutes for dairy products. A popular booklet describes soy foods
as " . . . uniformly high in protein but low in calories, carbohydrates and fats,
entirely devoid of cholesterol, high in vitamins, easy to digest, tasty and
wonderfully versatile in the kitchen, [which] positions them as irresistible new food
staples for the evolving American diet. 1. . . with each mouth watering soy food
dish," says the author, "comes a balanced, adequate and sustainable nutritional
package." 2 Leaving aside the question of whether products like tofu and soy milk
are really "mouthwatering" and "irresistible," those charged with providing nutritious
meals for their families should carefully examine claims that newly introduced
soybean products provide an easily digested and complete nutritional package,
one that adequately replaces dairy products like milk, butter and cheese, which
have, after all, provided nourishment for generations of Americans. History of the
BeanSoybeans come to us from the Orient. During the Chou Dynasty (1134 - 246
BC) the soybean was designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley,
wheat, millet and rice. However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from
earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the
pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the
plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure. Agricultural
literature of the period speaks frequently of the soybean and its use in crop
rotation. Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.
3 soybean did not serve as a food until the discovery of fermentation techniques,
sometime during the Chou Dynasty. Thus the first soy foods were fermented
products like tempeh, natto, miso and shoyu (soy or tamari sauce). At a later date,
possibly in the 2nd century B.C., Chinese scientists discovered that a puree of
cooked soybeans could be precipitated with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate
(plaster of Paris or Epsom salts) to make a smooth pale curd - tofu or bean curd.
The use of fermented and precipitated soy products soon spread to other parts of
the Orient, notably Japan and Indonesia. Although the highly flavored fermented
products have elicited greater interest among scientists and epicures, it is the
bland precipitated products that are most frequently used, accounting for
approximately 90% of the processed soybeans consumed in Asia today.4 The
increased reliance on bean curd as a source of protein, which occurred between
700 A.D. and the present time, has not necessarily been a beneficial change for
the populations of the Orient and Southeast Asia. Fit for Human Consumption?The
Chinese did not eat the soybean as they did other pulses (legumes) such as the
lentil because the soybean contains large quantities of a number of harmful
substances. First among them are potent enzyme inhibitors which block the action
of trypsin and other enzymes needed for protein digestion. These "antinutrients"
are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking and can produce serious
gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid
uptake. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors cause enlargement and
pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer. The soybean also
contains hemaglutinin, a clot promoting substance that causes red blood cells to
clump together. Trypsin inhibitors and hemaglutinin have been rightly labeled
"growth depressant substances." They are deactivated during the process of
fermentation. In precipitated products, enzyme inhibitors concentrate in the
soaking liquid rather than in the curd. Thus in tofu and bean curd, these enzyme
inhibitors are reduced in quantity, but not completely eliminated. Soybeans are
also high in phytic acid or phytates. This is an organic acid, present in the bran or
hulls of all seeds, which blocks the uptake of essential minerals-calcium,
magnesium, iron and especially zinc-in the intestinal tract. Although not a
household word, phytates have been extensively studied. Scientists are in general
agreement that grain and legume based diets high in phytates contribute to
widespread mineral deficiencies in third world countries.5 Analysis shows that
calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc are present in the plant foods eaten in these
areas, but the high phytate content of soy and rice based diets prevents their
absorption. The soybean has a higher phytate content than any other grain or
legume that has been studied.6 Furthermore, it seems to be highly resistant to
many phytate reducing techniques such as long, slow cooking.7 Only a long
period of fermentation will significantly reduce the phytate content of soybeans.
Thus fermented products such as tempeh and miso provide nourishment that is
easily assimilated, but the nutritional value of tofu and bean curd, both high in
phytates, is questionable. When precipitated soy products are consumed with
meat, the mineral blocking effects of the phytates are reduced.8 The Japanese
traditionally eat tofu as part of a mineral-rich fish broth. Vegetarians who consume
tofu and bean curd as a substitute for meat and dairy products risk severe mineral
deficiencies. The results of calcium, magnesium and iron deficiency are well
known, those of zinc are less so. Zinc is called the intelligence mineral because it
is needed for optimal development and functioning of the brain and nervous system.
It plays a role in protein synthesis and collagen formation; it is involved in the
blood sugar control mechanism and thus protects against diabetes; it is needed
for a healthy reproductive system. Zinc is a key component in numerous vital
enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. Phytates found in soy products
interfere with zinc absorption more completely than with other minerals.9 Literature
extolling soy products tends to minimize the role of zinc in human physiology, and
to gloss over the deleterious effect of diets high in phytic acid. Milk drinking is
given as the reason second generation Japanese in America grow taller than their
native ancestors. Some investigators postulate that the reduced phytate content
of the American diet-whatever may be its other deficiencies-is the true explanation,
pointing out that Asian and Oriental children who do not get enough meat and fish
products to counteract the effects of a high phytate diet, frequently suffer rickets,
stunting and other growth problems.10 The current climate of medical opinion in
America has cast a cloud of disapproval on tallness. Parents would do well to ask
their six-year-old boys whether they would prefer to be six-foot-one or
five-foot-seven when they grow up, before substituting tofu for eggs, meat and
dairy products. Marketing the SoybeanThe truth is, however, that most Americans
are unlikely to adopt traditional soy products as their principal food. Tofu, bean
curd and tempeh have a disagreeable texture and are too bland for the Western
palate; pungent and musty miso and natto lose out in taste tests; only soy sauce
enjoys widespread popularity as a condiment. The soy industry has therefore
looked for other ways to market the superabundance of soybeans now grown in
the United States. Large scale cultivation of the soybean in the United States
began only after the Second World War, and quickly rose to 140 billion pounds
per year. Most of the crop is made into animal feed and soy oil for hydrogenated
fats- margarine and shortening. During the past 20 years, the industry has
concentrated on finding markets for the byproducts of soy oil manufacture,
including soy "lecithin", made from the oil sludge, and soy protein products, made
from defatted soy flakes, a challenge that has involved overcoming consumer
resistance to soy products, generally considered tasteless "poverty foods". "The
quickest way to gain product acceptability in the less affluent society," said a soy
industry spokesman, " is to have the product consumed on its own merit in a
more affluent society."11 Hence the proliferation of soy products resembling
traditional American foods-soy milk for cows milk, soy baby formula, soy yogurt,
soy ice cream, soy cheese, soy flour for baking and textured soy protein as meat
substitutes, usually promoted as high protein, low-fat, no cholesterol "healthfoods"
to the upscale consumer increasingly concerned about his health. The growth of
vegetarianism among the more affluent classes has greatly accelerated the
acceptability and use of these ersatz products. Unfortunately they pose numerous
dangers. Processing Denatures and Dangers Remainhe production of soy milk is
relatively simple. In order to remove as much of the trypsin inhibitor content as
possible, the beans are first soaked in an alkaline solution. The pureed solution is
then heated to about 115 degrees C in a pressure cooker. This method destroys
most (but not all) of the anti-nutrients but has the unhappy side effect of so
denaturing the proteins that they become very difficult to digest and much
reduced in effectiveness.12 The phytate content remains in soy milk to block the
uptake of essential minerals. In addition, the alkaline soaking solution produces a
carcinogen, lysinealine, and reduces the cystine content, which is already low in
the soybean.13 Lacking cystine, the entire protein complex of the soybean
becomes useless unless the diet is fortified with cystine-rich meat, eggs, or dairy
products, an unlikely occurrence as the typical soy milk consumer drinks the awful
stuff because he wants to avoid meat, eggs and dairy products. Most soy
products that imitate traditional American food items, including baby formulas and
some brands of soy milk, are made with soy protein isolate, that is the soy protein
isolated from the carbohydrate and fatty acid components that naturally occur in
the bean. Soy beans are first ground and subjected to high-temperature and
solvent extraction processes to remove the oils. The resultant defatted meal is
then mixed with an alkaline solution and sugars in a separation process to remove
fiber. Then it is precipitated and separated using an acid wash. Finally the
resultant curds are neutralized in an alkaline solution and spray dried at high
temperatures to produce high protein powder. This is a highly refined product in
which both vitamin and protein quality are compromised-but some trypsin inhibitors
remain, even after such extreme refining! Trypsin inhibitor content of soy protein
isolate can vary as much as 5-fold.l4 In rats, even low level trypsin inhibitor soy
protein isolate feeding results in reduced weight gain compared to controls.15 Soy
product producers are not required to state trypsin inhibitor content on labels, nor
even to meet minimum standards, and the public, trained to avoid dietary
cholesterol, a substance vital for normal growth and metabolism, has never heard
of the potent anti-nutrients found in cholesterol-free soy products. Soy Formula Is
Not the AnswerSoy protein isolate is the main ingredient of soy-based infant
formulas. Along with trypsin inhibitors, these formulas have a high phytate content.
Use of soy formula has caused zinc deficiency in infants.16 Aluminum content of
soy formula is 10 times greater than milk based formula, and 100 times greater
than unprocessed milk.17 Aluminum has a toxic effect on the kidneys of infants,
and has been implicated as causing Alzheimer's in adults. Soy milk formulas are
often given to babies with milk allergy; but allergies to soy are almost as common
as those to milk.18 Use of soy formula to treat infant diarrhea has had mixed
results, some studies showing improvement with soy formula while others show
none at all.19 Soy formulas lack cholesterol which is absolutely essential for the
development of the brain and nervous system; they also lack lactose and
galactose, which play an equally important role in the development of the nervous
system. A number of other substances, which are unnecessary and of
questionable safety, are added to soy formulas including carrageenan, guar gum,
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), potassium citrate monohydrate, tricalcium
phosphate, dibasic magnesium phosphate trihydrate, BHA and BHT. Nitrosamines,
which are potent carcinogens, are often found in soy protein foods, and are
greatly increased during the high temperature drying process.20 Not surprisingly,
animal feeding studies show a lower weight gain for rats on soy formula than
those on whole milk, high-lactose formula.21 Similar results have been observed
in children on macrobiotic diets which include the use of soy milk and large
amounts of whole grains. Children brought up on high-phytate diets tend to be thin
and scrawny.22 Fabricated Soy FoodsA final indignity to the original soy bean is
high-temperature, high-pressure extrusion processing of soy protein isolate to
produce textured vegetable protein. Numerous artificial flavorings, particularly
MSG, are added to TVP products to mask their strong "beany" taste, and impart
the flavor of meat. Soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are used
extensively in school lunch programs, commercial baked goods, diet beverages
and fast food products. They are heavily promoted in third world countries and
form the basis of many food give-away programs. These soy products greatly
inhibit zinc and iron absorption; in test animals they cause enlarged organs,
particularly the pancreas and thyroid gland, and increased deposition of fatty
acids in the liver.23 Human feeding tests to determine the cholesterol lowering
properties of soy protein isolate have not shown them to be effective.24
Nevertheless, they are often promoted as having beneficial effects on cholesterol
levels. Cancer Preventing or Cancer Causing?The food industry also touts soy
products for their cancer preventing properties. Isoflavone aglycones are
anticarcinogenic substances found in traditionally fermented soybean products.
However, in non-fermented soy products such as tofu and soy milk, these
isoflavones are present in an altered form, as beta-glycoside conjugates, which
have no anti-carcinogenic effect.25 Some researchers believe the rapid increase
in liver and pancreatic cancer in Africa is due to the introduction of soy products
there.26 The fatty acid profile of the soybean includes large amounts of beneficial
omega-3 fatty acids compared to other pulses (legumes); but these omega-3 fatty
acids are particularly susceptible to rancidity when subjected to high pressures
and temperatures. This is exactly what is required to remove oil from the bean, as
soybean oil is particularly difficult to extract. Hexane or other solvents are always
used to extract oil from soybeans, and traces remain in the commercial product.
Soy Protein Is Not CompleteWhile fermented soy products contain protein,
vitamins, anti-carcinogenic substances and important fatty acids, they can under
no circumstances be called nutritionally complete. Like all pulses, the soybean
lacks vital sulfur-containing amino acids cystine and methionine. These are
usually supplied by rice and other grains in areas where the soybean is
traditionally consumed. Soy should never be considered as a substitute for animal
products like meat or milk. Claims that fermented soy products like tempeh can be
relied on as a source of vitamin B12, necessary for healthy blood and nervous
system, have not been supported by scientific research.27 Finally, soybeans do
not supply all-important fat soluble vitamins D and preformed A (retinol) which act
as catalysts for the proper absorption and utilization of all minerals and water
soluble vitamins in the diet. These "fat soluble activators" are found only in certain
animal foods such as organ meats, butter, eggs, fish and shellfish. Carotenes from
plant foods and exposure to sunlight are not sufficient to supply the body's
requirements for vitamins A and D.
28 Soy products often replace animal products in third world countries where
intake of B12and fat soluble A and D are already low. Soy products actually
increase requirements for vitamins B12 and D.29 Are soy products easy to digest,
as claimed? Fermented soy products probably are; but unfermented products with
their cargo of phytates, enzyme inhibitors, rancid fatty acids and altered proteins
most certainly are not. Pet food manufacturers promote soy free dog and cat food
as "highly digestible". Only Fermented Soy Products Are SafeTo summarize,
traditional fermented soy products such as miso, natto and tempeh-which are
usually made with organically grown soybeans-have a long history of use that is
generally beneficial when combined with other elements of the Oriental diet
including rice, sea foods, fish broth, organ meats and fermented vegetables. The
value of precipitated soybean products is problematical, especially when they
form the major source of protein in the diet. Modern soy products including soy
milks and ersatz meat and dairy products made from soy protein isolate and
textured vegetable protein are new to the diet and pose a number of serious
problems. Another Look at MilkWhat then about dairy products? A few studies
have linked modern commercial milk products with serious diseases such as
cancer, diabetes and arthritis; but natural milk products have a long history of
conferring good health in many parts of the globe. Dr. Weston Price, a pioneer
in the science of nutrition, studied isolated population groups during the 1930's.
He found that milk products were the principal food of many supremely healthy
populations including isolated villagers in the Swiss Alps, the Masai and related
tribes in Africa, and Arabic peoples in the Middle East.30 Of the three areas in the
world noted for the longevity of the local population -the Caucasus Mountains in
Russia, the village of Vilcabamba in Ecuador and the land of the Hunza in northern
India- all three use whole milk products. The people of Hunza and Kashmir
consume whole fermented goat milk products; inhabitants of Vilcabamba consume
raw cows milk which they usually separate into cream cheese and whey; and the
centenarians of the Caucasus Mountains eat whole milk yogurt and other dairy
products. Milk products form the backbone of the Hindu diet, with clarified butter
(ghee) and fermented curds eaten with every meal. "The cows are our friends,
they give food, they give strength, they likewise give a good complexion and
happiness," said Gautama Buddha. While the Japanese have the longest life span
of the civilized world on a diet containing few milk products, the Swiss are a close
second in the longevity stakes with a diet just loaded with rich milk products like
butter, cream and cheese. Tied for third and fourth are the Austrians and the
Greeks. Both these populations consume whole milk products, especially cheese.
Milk products are even found in some parts of the Orient, from water buffalo milk in
Southeast Asia to cows milk in northern China. The longest living man in the West
was Old Par, an English peasant who labored in the fields until his death at 152
years. His diet consisted almost entirely of raw goat milk products-milk, cheese
and whey.31 Processing Is the ProblemThe path that transforms healthy milk
products into allergens and carcinogens begins with modern feeding methods that
substitute high-protein, soy-based feeds for fresh green grass; and breeding
methods to produce cows with abnormally large pituitary glands so that they
produce three times more milk than the old fashioned scrub cow. These cows
need antibiotics to keep them well. Their milk is then pasteurized so that all
valuable enzymes are destroyed-lactase for the assimilation of lactose; galactase
for the assimilation of galactose; phosphatase for the assimilation of calcium.
Literally dozens of precious enzymes are destroyed in the pasteurization process.
Without them milk is very difficult to digest. The human pancreas is not always
able to produce these enzymes; overstress of the pancreas can lead to diabetes
and other diseases.32 Non-fat dried milk is added to 1% and 2% milk. Unlike the
cholesterol in fresh milk, which plays a variety of health promoting roles, the
cholesterol in nonfat dried milk is oxidized and it is this rancid cholesterol that
promotes heart disease. Like all spray dried products, non-fat dried milk has a
high nitrite content. Non-fat dried milk and sweetened condensed milk are the
principal dairy products in third world countries; use of ultra high temperature
pasteurized milk is widespread in Europe. Quality Dairy Products Are Available
Public health officials and the National Dairy Council have worked together in this
country to make it very difficult to obtain wholesome fresh raw dairy products.
Nevertheless, they can be found with a little effort. In some states you can buy
raw milk directly from farmers. Whole pasteurized non-homogenized milk from
cows raised on organic feed is now available in many gourmet shops and health
food stores. It can be cultured to restore enzyme content, at least partially.
33 Cultured buttermilk is often more easily digested than regular milk; it is an
excellent product to use in baking. Many shops now carry whole cream, that is
merely pasteurized (not ultra pasteurized like most commercial cream): diluted
with water it is delicious on cereal and a good substitute for those allergic to milk.
Traditionally made creme fraiche (European style sour cream) also has a high
enzyme content. Fresh, organic yogurt made from whole milk according to
traditional methods is also now available, as well as organic raw cheese. Many
imported cheeses are raw (look for the words "milk" or "fresh milk" on the label)
and are of very high quality. Butter Is a Healthy FoodOrganic, cultured butter is
available in many stores. It has restored enzymes and a high vitamin A content.
Contrary to widely held opinion, there is no evidence that butter contributes to
heart disease or cancer. At the turn of the century, butter consumption in America
was 18 pounds per person per year. Today it is a mere five pounds. As butter
consumption has plummeted, cancer and heart disease have risen dramatically.
The real blame for this increase points squarely at hydrogenated butter
substitutes-margarine and shortening.
34 Butter contains many nutrients that
protect us against disease. Those with severe allergies to milk products can still
eat clarified butter (ghee) and enjoy its good taste and numerous nutritional
benefits. In countries that traditionally produce milk, adults favor fermented
products such as yogurt, clabber, buttermilk and soft and hard cheeses. These
are easier to digest because of enhanced enzyme content. But fresh whole milk
is easily digested by most children and is an appropriate food up to the age of
three or four. A child's toleration for milk will be much greater if it is raw. If you
have property in the country, consider raising scrub cows or goats in order to
provide fresh raw milk for your children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews-there
is no greater gift you can give them than the healthy start conferred by fresh
whole raw milk. Homemade Formula Best for BabiesNeither milk-based nor
soy-based infant commercial formulas can be recommended for optimal
development of the infant. Mothers who cannot breast feed, for whatever reason,
should prepare homemade formula based on whole milk for their babies. The rare
child allergic to whole milk formula should be given a whole foods meat-based
formula, not one made of soy protein isolate. Time invested in preparing
homemade formula will be well rewarded with the joys of conferring robust good
health on your children.
Consumer Beware!
To summarize, there may be some beneficial factors in soy foods prepared
according to traditional fermentation methods. In the Orient these are eaten in
small amounts as condiments, and not as a replacement for animal foods. Highly
processed soy protein isolates and textured vegetable protein have little in
common with traditional soy products. They might be compared to plastic
processed cheese slices, which have nothing in common with traditionally
processed whole milk natural cheeses. Promotion of modern, industrially
processed soy products should be viewed with skepticism. This is a huge and
powerful industry. Archer Daniel Midlands, the world's major soy processor,
spends heavily on advertising, especially for news programs on major networks.
The company spent $4.7 million for advertising on "Meet the Press" and
$4.3 million on "Face the Nation" during the course of a year. ADM also has
holdings in major newspapers. Naturally, the press presents soy in a favorable
light. ADM lobbies heavily in Washington, and supports university research
programs. ADM president Dwayne Andreas is a fanatic about spreading
soy-based food around the world. There's a lot in it for him-but not much in it for us.
Consumer beware.
There is no joy in soy--it's a ploy.
REFERENCES 1. Leviton, Richard, Tofu, Tempeh, Miso and Other Soyfoods:
The "Food of the Future" -How to Enjoy Its Spectacular Health Benefits,
Keats Publishing, Inc, New Canaan, CT, 1982, p. 12. 2. Ibid. p. 2. 3. Katz Solomon
H., "Food and Biocultural Evolution: A Model for the Investigation of Modern
Nutritional Problems", Nutritional Anthropology, Alan R. Liss Inc., 1987 p. 50. 4.
Ibid. p. 49. 5. Van-Rensburg, et. al. "Nutritional status of African populations
predisposed to esophageal cancer", Nutr-Cancer, V.4, 1983, pp. 206-216; Moser,
P.B. et. al., "Copper, iron, zinc and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese
lactating women and their breast-fed infants", Am-J-Clin-Nutr, v.47, Apr 1988,
pp.729-734; Harland, B.F., et. al., "Nutritional status and phytate: zinc and
phytate X calcium: zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo-vegetarian Trappist
monks: 10 years later", J-Am-Diet-Assoc., v. 88, Dec 1988, pp. 1562-1566. 6.
El Tiney, A.H., "Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of
Legumes Grown in Sudan", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 2, 1989,
pp. 67-78. 7. Ologhobo, A.D., et. al., "Distribution of phosphorus and phytate in
some Nigerian varieties of legumes and some effects of processing", J-Food-Sci,
v.49 (1), Jan/Feb 1984, pp. 199-201. 8. Sandstrom, B. et. al., "Effect of protein
level and protein source on zinc

Nahrungs- und Genußmittel

Eigenschaften

Blüte: GRÜN
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja
Soja-Bohne
Soja-Bohne
Soja-Bohne

Allgemeine Beschreibung der Familie Schmetterlingsblütler

Weltwirtschaftspflanzen: Weltweit in allen Klimazonen einige hundert Arten.

Blätter wechselständig mit Nebenblätter
gefiedert, gefingert, 3-teilig, unpaarig, paarig, mit Ranke

Stängel vierkantig.

Blüte: Oberlippe, Unterlippe. Blütenblätter sind einzeln herausziehbar
2seitig symetrische Blüte. Kelch am Grunde verwachsen.
Blüten stehen bei den Luzernen unter Spannung und fliegen den Insekten an
die Brust.
Fahne = 1 Blütenblatt, Flügel: 2 Blütenblätter
Schiffchen: 1 Blütenblatt. Kelch ist verwachsen.

Blütenstand: Rispe, Traube(Wiesenplatterbse), Dolde(Kronwicke),
Köpfchen(Wiesenklee)

Frucht ist eine Hülse.

Im Rohzustand auf Grund von toxischen Eiweißstoffen
immer Giftig. (Enzymblocker=Blockiert Verdauungsenzyme der Pankreas)
Eiweiß in den Samen, Flavonoide(Phytoöstrogene), Cumarin:Steinklee,
Schabzigerklee, Saponine(Sojabohne), Lectine, Herzglykoside(Kronwicke)
Blausäureglykoside(Hornklee, Futterwicke), Alkaloide(Lupine), Gerbstoffe

typische Vertreter: Leguminosen, Hülsenfrüchte, Hornklee, Ginster, Lupine,
Platterbse, Steinklee (Gattung Melilotus), Hopfenklee (Gattung Medicago),
Hornklee (Gattung Lotus), Wicken, Goldregen, Weißklee, Rotklee,
Luzerne (Blüte steht unter Spannung!), Sauerklee (Sauerkleegew.)
Fieberklee (Fieberkleegew.), Affenbrotbaum, etc...

Mit Hilfe von Knöllchenbakterien reichern die Schmetterlingsblütler
den Boden mit Stickstoff an.

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